The Glamorgan-Gwent Archaeological Trust Ltd.

The Historic Landscape Character Areas (HLCAs)

Aerial view of the Wye river valley

HLCA 001 The River Wye

Communication and coastal maritime corridor: bridges; weirs; fords; viaducts; ports/docks; ferries; harbour/fishing; ornamental/leisure and tourism; water supply resources. Back to map

'Aerial view of the Chepstow transport Corridor

HLCA 002 Chepstow Transport Corridor

Communication and coastal maritime corridor: bridges; footbridges; railway bridges; riverfront and intertidal features, ports/docks; slipway; industrial Archaeology; public and industrial railway; relict/buried Archaeology: Prehistoric settlement; and Roman funerary and ritual (cremations). Back to map

Aerial view of Chepstow town centre with the castle in the background

HLCA 003 Chepstow

Historic settlement core: Medieval walled town and early post-medieval extra-mural settlement: nucleated regular and organic (ie linear and irregular cluster); Post-medieval urban domestic, commercial, and civic buildings (medieval structures?); relict Anglo-Norman and medieval defensive; Medieval and Post-medieval ecclesiastic buildings (various); historic associations; communication features. Back to map

View across pasture land to the Ancient Woodland within Piercefield Park in the background

HLCA 004 Piercefield Park Ancient Woodland

Ancient Woodland within Piercefield Park : relict Prehistoric defensive archaeology; Post-medieval industrial extractive and processing features (eg limekilns); ornamental leisure: parkland (ornamental walks and viewpoints); tourism; communication features; historic associations (Picturesque Movement); woodland management. Back to map

Aerial view of Piercefield Park with Chepstow racecourse (top left-hand corner).

HLCA 005 Piercefield Park

Core of Post-medieval gentry estate associated with the Picturesque Movement: Neoclassical mansion (ruins) and associated outbuildings; ornamental leisure: registered 18th century landscaped parkland and garden; historic associations (Picturesque Movement); Communication features. Back to map

Aerial view of HLCA006 showing possible encroachment settlement.

HLCA 006 The Kymin

Possible encroachment settlement (ie squatter origins): irregular scatter (cottages within small irregular enclosures); communication features; traditional boundaries; broad-leafed woodland and scrub. Back to map

Aerial view across HLCA007 showing encroachment by quarrying (middle right).

HLCA 007 Livox Farm

Agricultural landscape (single farmstead): regular fieldscape: large rectangular enclosures; traditional boundaries; communication features; buried archaeology; monastic associations. Back to map

View across pasture land showing the agricultural nature of HLCA008 with Garn Llwyd in background

HLCA 008 Reddings Farm

Agricultural landscape (single farmstead): semi-regular fieldscape: partially amalgamated; monastic holding “Rudding Grange” or "Assart Grange"; traditional boundaries; relict/buried archaeology: prehistoric finds and medieval grange features. Back to map

Aerial photograph over Tintern ancient woodland showing scattered enclosures and evidence of encroachment.

HLCA 009 Tintern Ancient Woodland and Barbadoes Hill

Ancient Woodland with scattered enclosures: post-medieval encroachment (eg. Barbadoes Hill); agri-industrial extraction and processing; relict archaeology: Prehistoric funerary and ritual and medieval/post-medieval settlement/fields; monastic associations (possibly Secular Firmary Grange and Coed-yr-Abad); historic associations; woodland management features/indications (potential). Back to map

View of the transport corridor from the air showing settlement to the left

HLCA 010 Dixton Transport Corridor

Transport and communication corridor: roads (Roman and post-medieval) and associated features; public rail; Post-medieval settlement and fields: settlement pattern dispersed farmhouses and cottages, and church; field pattern: regular; traditional boundaries; ecclesiastical features: medieval church and associated cemetery (on early medieval monastic site); relict/buried archaeology (Prehistoric/Roman and Medieval); education; industrial archaeology: metal processing, mill and cider house. Back to map

St Mary's Street, Monmouth looking west showing the post-medieval houses

HLCA 011 Monmouth

Historic settlement core: Medieval/post-medieval settlement and associated Anglo-Norman castle; settlement pattern nucleated regular and organic (ie linear and irregular cluster); Post-medieval urban domestic, commercial, and civic buildings (medieval structures?); Anglo-Norman, medieval and post-medieval defensive features; relict and buried archaeology (multiperiod); communication features; Medieval and Post-medieval ecclesiastical features (churces, cemeteries and chapels); Industrial archaeology (eg. mill; brewery, site of tannery); historic associations. Back to map

View across pasture land showing the agricultural nature of HLCA012

HLCA 012 Fairoak Fieldscape

Post-medieval agricultural landscape: semi-regular fieldscape; traditional boundaries; Post-medieval dispersed settlement (farms and cottages); small planned settlement; relict archaeology; communication features; water resources (pond). Back to map

Tintern Abbey

HLCA 013 Tintern

Monastic and settlement landscape associated with Picturesque Movement: relict archaeology: monastic (Cistercian Abbey of Tintern and significant associated monastic features); historic associations & ornamental/leisure and tourism (Picturesque Movement); industrial archaeology; medieval and post-medieval settlement/fields: organic cluster and later ribbon development settlement pattern; distinctive vernacular style (reuse of former conventual structures); traditional building materials and distinctive boundaries; communications; and wooded setting. Back to map

View across one of the dams within HLCA014

HLCA 014 Angidy Valley

Industrial landscape: relict industrial archaeology: metal processing; mills; quarrying; water management features (weirs, leats and dams); communication features (inluding industrial rail and bridges); Post-medieval industrial settlement (informal dispersed pattern of Georgian style houses and cottages with associated enclosures; distinctive vernacular style; post-medieval settlement features/building types (non-conformist chapels; public house; 19th century school); historic and monastic associations (monastic land); traditional boundaries. Back to map

View across fieldscape of HLCA015.

HLCA 015 Upper Redbrook Fieldscape

Medieval/Post-medieval agricultural landscape: varied pattern of small - medium fields; settlement predominantly dispersed farmsteads; traditional boundaries; relict archaeology: medieval monastic settlement/fields (Beaulieu or ‘Grace Dieu’ Grange); communication features (eg. incline over bridge, and industrial rail). Back to map

View 0f Tintern Parva church and churchyard

HLCA 016 Tintern Parva

Medieval/Post-medieval settlement: nucleated cluster, ribbon development and dispersed farmsteads and cottages; relict archaeology: medieval and post-medieval settlement/fields; monastic (former manor/Hospice at Tintern Parva); 19th century settlement features/building types (place of worship, police station, public houses); communication features; Medieval/Post-medieval ecclesiastical (church and cemetery and non-conformist chapel); varied agricultural field pattern, some amalgamation, other areas reverting to scrub woodland; Ancient Woodland; industrial archaeology (malthouse, smithy and wharf). Back to map

View across HLCA016 showing the regular agricultural field pattern.

HLCA 017 Wye Valley Railway South

Communication/transport corridor: major roads; public rail (station buildings and signal box); regular agricultural field pattern: large meadows, and some strips; settlement pattern: dispersed farmsteads; industrial archaeology: metal processing, cider production; ornamental leisure and tourism. Back to map

Aerial photograph over HLCA018 showing the sports and recreation ground which once made up the park.

HLCA 018 Chippenham

Registered park (PGW (Gt) 6), 20th century garden/park now a sports and recreation ground; ornamental leisure: sports facilities (tennis courts, bowling green, football, rugby); buried and relict archaeology: historic common in Monmouth (stones and winning post OS 1st edition); Post-medieval settlement/fields (Chippenham Cottage); boundaries of adjacent properties (railings and gate piers). Back to map

View along one of the picturesque’ walk through Beaulieu wood.

HLCA 019 Highmeadow Woods

Ancient Woodland: woodland management features: charcoal burning hearths; relict industrial archaeology: charcoal burning at Priory Grove; and quarrying; communication: footpaths (‘picturesque’ walk through Beaulieu wood); public rail (dismantled Ross-Monmouth railway); Roman road (OS 1st edition); ornamental/leisure; tourism (‘picturesque’ walk and viewing platforms); woodland boundaries. Back to map

Aerial view showing the agricultural fieldscape of HLCA020.

HLCA 020 Hadnock Fieldscape

Agricultural landscape: varied irregular pattern of curvilinear fields at the centre of the area (fossilized medieval open fields?), some 20th century amalgamation in south; traditional boundaries; Medieval/Post-medieval settlement/fields; settlement pattern: dispersed farmsteads and cottages (including minor gentry house Hadnock Hall); buried and relict archaeology: Roman settlement (villa), finds and industrial archaeology; communication features (including hollow way /Roman Road); public rail). Back to map

Aerial view showing the irregular fieldscape of HLCA021

HLCA 021 Newton

Agricultural landscape: irregular pattern of irregular fields (minor 20th century amalgamation and sub-division); traditional boundaries; Medieval/Post-medieval settlement/fields: loosely dispersed settlement pattern of farms and cottages and a linear group of minor gentry houses (Newton Court and Hall); relict/buried industrial archaeology: medieval mill and metal processing sites (also additional potential for prehistoric, medieval and post-medieval buried features); communication features (sunken lanes); traditional boundaries (high mortared walls and earthen banks); historic associations; mixed woodland, and orchard. Back to map

'View across Cuckoo Wood showing small-scale encroachment to the right of the woodland

HLCA 022 Cuckoo Wood

Ancient Woodland with isolated post-medieval encroachment of smallholdings and walled enclosures: relict industrial archaeology: quarrying; traditional boundaries (dry-stone walls) and other boundary features (eg ‘The Resting Stone’); communication features. Back to map

View up to ancient woodland of HLCA023 with evidence of new planting in centre of forest

HLCA 023 Hayes Coppice

Ancient Woodland with irregular enclosures associated with Newton Court: mixed parkland planting; industrial archaeology: quarrying; communication and boundaries (estate walls) and boundary features; relict Archaeology: potential for woodland management features. Back to map

Aerial view of medieval/post-medieval settlement within HLCA024

HLCA 024 Llandogo

Medieval/Post-medieval settlement with early medieval origins and associated agricultural hinterland: settlement pattern: nucleated cluster around church; ribbon development and irregular cluster on slope; typical 19th/20th century settlement features/building types; ecclesiastical: medieval/post medieval church and cemetery (early medieval origins); post-medieval chapel; traditional boundaries; varied irregular enclosure/field pattern: small wooded (orchards?) enclosures associated with settlement, medium to large irregular fields around Rectory; Communication features. Back to map

Image showing the agricultural nature of HLCA025 with traditional farmhouse surrounded by stone boundaries (centre of shot).

HLCA 025 Pilstone

Agricultural landscape: irregular evolved pattern of small - medium-sized irregular fields some 20th century amalgamation, plantation and orchards located around farms; traditional boundaries; dispersed settlement of isolated farmsteads and Pilstone House and garden; distinctive vernacular style: 16th century farmhouse (Pilstone Farm), and Victorian gentry house (Pilstone House); communication features; mixed woodland (& orchards). Back to map

Image showing dispersed settlement with three houses and drystone wall in foreground.

HLCA 026 Pen-y-Fan

Evolved irregular agricultural landscape with dispersed settlement: varied small-medium enclosures, including initial and successive irregular enclosures and more regular infilling; traditional field boundaries; scrub/unmanaged land; orchards; settlement pattern: loose dispersed scatter of houses and cottages, basically smallholdings; Communication features; tourism (‘Swiss chalet’ caravan park). Back to map

Aerial view across the ancient woodland of HLCA027.

HLCA 027 Hael Woods

Ancient Woodland with dispersed wooded irregular encroachment and scattered (ribbon development) post-medieval? settlement (the Birches): industrial archaeology: metal processing (early Whitebrook wireworks site); quarrying (including millstones); limekilns; cider presses/mills; water management: leats, reservoir, dam (association with Whitebrook wireworks); historic associations; woodland management features; boundary features (boundary stones). Back to map

Image of two flanking hedges leading up to post-medieval farmstead.

HLCA 028 The Narth

Irregular post-medieval and 20th century settlement on the edge of Trellech Common: scatter of post-medieval farmsteads and cottages with recent dense, though irregular development of bungalows and houses; irregular evolved fieldscape of small irregular enclosures, minor amalgamation and subdivision for building plots; good 19th century vernacular buildings; mixed woodland; traditional boundaries; communication features. Back to map

The derelict remains of a stone built mill.

HLCA 029 Whitebrook Valley

Primarily industrial settlement: loose dispersed scatter and small clusters/ribbon development of cottages and larger houses/farms; varied enclosure pattern with irregular evolved enclosures and regular rectilinear enclosures; post-medieval settlement features/building types; industrial archaeology; mills (paper, corn and cider mills, and former wireworks); possible iron forge site (slag heap) and quarries; water management features associated with mills: reservoirs, leats and sluices; wells associated with settlement; communication features; traditional boundaries; mixed woodland and coniferous plantation. Back to map

Image showing the varied agricultural landscape of HLCA030.

HLCA 030 Tregagle and Pen-twyn Fieldscape

Varied agricultural landscape: evolved irregular pattern of small fields (heavily wooded) around Tregagle, elsewhere larger curvilinear, rectilinear and sub-rectangular enclosures (partially amalgamation); loosely dispersed settlement of farms and cottages; scrub/unmanaged land; relict archaeology: medieval/post-medieval settlement/fields, prehistoric finds; communication features. Back to map

View through the trees looking up to the folly

HLCA 031 Kymin Naval Temple

Registered parkland and garden with commemorative temple: ornamental/leisure (tower/folly/viewpoint); distinctive building type: picturesque pavilion and memorial; historic associations: persons; events; and ‘Picturesque’ Movement; tourism (National Trust property); Ancient Woodland; communication features. Back to map

Image of trackways running through the broadleaf woodland within HLCA032.

HLCA 032 Pen-y-garn and Church Hill Common

Varied landscape of amalgamated former irregular evolved enclosure and more regular post-medieval enclosure (improved common); small parcel of surviving common; medium-sized regular and large amalgamated enclosures (former irregular fieldscape); traditional boundaries; broadleaf woodland and scrub/unmanaged land; relict archaeology: medieval settlement/fields (deserted medieval settlement?); communication features. Back to map

Image showing the varied agricultural landscape of HLCA033.

HLCA 033 The Garth and Wyesham Fieldscape

Varied agricultural landscape: medium-sized slightly irregular fields (result of field amalgamation) and regular fields); traditional boundaries; settlement pattern: loose dispersed scatter of farmsteads and cottage, country house/vicarage (the Garth); communication features; ecclesiastical/monastic association: the Garth (medieval hermitage and appropriated church/monastic landholding); potential relict/buried archaeology: medieval settlement/fields; historic associations. Back to map

Aerial view of Penallt Old Church and the earthworks associated with a possible medieval shrunken village.

HLCA 034 Penallt

A small loose organic clustered settlement of farmsteads and cottages with associated enclosures focused on Penallt Old Church (St Mary’s); relict/buried archaeology; possible medieval shrunken village and fieldscape; varied field pattern of evolved irregular enclosures at ‘core’ of settlement; more regular elsewhere; traditional boundaries (including dry-stone walls); ecclesiastical features: Medieval/post-medieval church and cemetery; communication features; Ancient Woodland and scrub/unmanaged land. Back to map

Aerial view of the transport network leading into the settlement of HLCA035.

HLCA 035 Wyesham

Post-medieval (19th century suburban clustered and mid-20th century planned nucleated) settlement dominated by transport and communication; 20th century housing estates (social and private), leisure facilities (Tennis courts and school playing fields, and sports ground) and industrial estates; post-medieval and 20th century settlement features/building types; communication features (major roads; disused industrial and public rail); ecclesiastical features: medieval chapel and19th century church (St James) and cemetery; site of post-medieval (19th century) industrial features. Back to map

View across the valley to the ancient woodland within HLCA036. Small enclosure can be seen further down slope below the treeline.

HLCA 036 Troypark Wood

An area of Ancient Woodland (wider setting of HLCA038) with small enclosures and sheepfolds; traditional boundaries; industrial archaeology: quarries; cider mill; communication features; settlement pattern: rare dispersed farmstead and other minor structures. Back to map

Aerial view of the regular fieldscape of medium-large enclosures within HLCA037.

HLCA 037 Troy Farm Fieldscape

Agricultural landscape and associated essential setting for Troy House (HLCA038): regular fieldscape of medium-large enclosures associated with planned home farm; varied traditional boundaries; characteistic buildings: farmstead and outbuildings (Home Farm); estate cottages and lodges (some in picturesque vernacular style); relict/buried archaeology: prehistoric-post-medieval settlement/fields; industrial archaeology: Roman bloomery; post-medieval? Tuck mill; relict ornamental/leisure: post-medieval garden and parkland features associated with Troy House (eg ‘Old Parke’ area, ponds, conduits, and grotto); historic associations; communication features. Back to map

View of Troy House, a post-medieval country house built in the Classical style.

HLCA 038 Troy House

Post-medieval country house in Classical style, Troy House, within associated registered park and garden of 17th–18th century date; relict archaeology post-medieval settlement/fields; country house and associated outbuildings, eg school building additions, ice house; ornamental/leisure: parkland and garden; historic associations. Back to map

View across the agricultural fieldscape of HLCA039.

HLCA 039 Wye Valley Railway North

Communication/transport corridor: major roads (A466); milestones; public rail (Wye Valley Railway); agricultural field pattern: large regular enclosures, meadows; traditional boundaries; Ancient Woodland; ornamental leisure and tourism (part of the Wye Valley walking route). Back to map

Aerial view of ancient woodland on the flanks of the Wye River Valley.

HLCA 040 Lord's Grove Woodland

Area of Ancient Woodland: other broadleaf woodland; relict industrial archaeology: quarries; communication features (including industrial Rail). Back to map