The Glamorgan-Gwent Archaeological Trust Ltd.

The Historic Landscape Character Areas (HLCAs)

King Street, Blaenavon: view to the north from Queen Street

HLCA001 Blaenavon Urban Core

Nineteenth century urban settlement associated with the development of the Blaenavon ironworks and related extractive industries. Built environment predominately Characterised by industrial terraced housing and planned street pattern with associated civic buildings, chapels and commercial centre; important historic associations.Back to Map

'Middle-class' housing along the A4043

HLCA002 Blaenavon Urban Extension

Late nineteenth and twentieth century urban settlement, planned though some early organic development. Large middle class houses, modern terraced and council housin. Remnant agricultural landscape.Back to map

Fieldscape of Glantorfaen with Company's Farm (centre)and industrial terraced row (middle left)

HLCA003 Glantorfaen

Area characterised by small clustered settlement of isolated industrial rows. Transportation and communication features, including industrial and public railway, tramroad network, roads, footpaths and tracks. Remnant agricultural landscape.Back to map

Ruined farmstead (middle centre): view to the southwest

HLCA004 Coity Enclosed Landscape

Area characterised by pre-industrial enclosed agricultural landscape and settlement possibly dating from the medieval period. Largely relict evolved/irregular field pattern. Traditional field boundaries. Domestic structures and agricultural buildings. Water management features.Back to map

Big Pit with associated buildings: view to the south.

HLCA 005 Forgeside and Big Pit

Relict industrial landscape characterised by nineteenth century industrial processing, associated extraction and waste tips; Big Pit colliery workings and former site of the later Blaenavon ironworks. Possible buried remains of features relating to Blaenavon ironworks. Important transport links: railway and tramroad. Water management features. Historic events and persons associated with the area.Back to map

Blaenavon Ironworks: view to west.

HLCA 006 Blaenavon Ironworks and Upper Brick Yard

Internationally important industrial processing and extraction area (including waste tips). Nationally significant industrial transport links (tramroad network). Characteristic industrial housing. Historic associations.Back to map

Garn Lakes nature reserve: view to the east.

HLCA 007 Garn Lakes (Kay and Kears Reclamation)

Formerly an industrial extractive landscape, now largely characterised by reclamation and wetland nature reserve; water management features. Also characterised by buried industrial and pre-industrial agricultural settlement remains.Back to map

Locomotives at the Pontypool and Blaenavon Railway.

HLCA 008 Garn-yr-Erw Transport Corridor

Transport corridor with industrial and public railways, tramroad network, tracks and lanes. Scatter of isolated industrial rows and cottages, with a church and school, at Garn-yr-Erw. Remnant post-medieval agricultural landscape and minor industrial extraction.Back to map

Aerial photograph over Hill's Pits, courtesy of RCAHMW.

HLCA 009 Cefn Garnyrerw and Pen-ffordd-goch Extractive Area

Relict industrial landscape characterised as open upland common and principal early extractive area in Blaenavon for coal, iron ore, fire clay and limestone. Important transport networks and features and intensive water management systems. Post-medieval encroachment.Back to map

Canada Tips created through WWII opencasting:view to the southwest

HLCA 010 Canada Tips and Blaen Pig

Extractive landscape dominated by WWII opencast workings and waste tips. Nineteenth century industrial extractive features related to quarrying and mining. Historic associations.Back to map

Quarries near Pwll Du: view to the north

HLCA 011 Blorenge and Gilwern Hill

Relict industrial extractive upland landscape associated principally with limestone extraction. Other major characteristics are transportation networks and metal processing. The area is also characterized by relict industrial settlement, formerly isolated rows within discrete groupings, and by post-medieval encroachment and prehistoric funerary/ritual features.Back to map

Aerial photograph of nucleated, planned settlement at Forgeside, courtesy of RCAHMW

HLCA 012 Forgeside Settlement

Industrial residential area characterised as a small, compact, regular-grid planned company settlement related to development of the later Blaenavon ironworks at Forgeside as well as Big Pit and other collieries. Industrial terraced housing and twentieth century council estate development.Back to map

Enclosed agricultural landscape of small, irregular fields, Cwm Llanwenarth: view to the north

HLCA 013 Cwm Llanwenarth and Cwm Craf

Enclosed agricultural landscape of evolved, irregular field pattern with traditional field boundaries and characteristic vernacular buildings: stone built farmhouses and cottages. Dispersed patches of ancient woodland and some plantation. The major industrial characteristic is related to transport networks. Historic associations.Back to map

Govilon Canal: view to the west.

HLCA 014 Govilon

Small canal side settlement characterised by domestic housing, ranging in date from the seventeenth century to the twentieth century, vernacular buildings, industrial and social housing. Industrial transport/communication: associated with the canal and wharf. Other characteristics include industrial and agricultural processing ie milling.Back to map

Terraced housing, The Cutting, Llanfoist: view to the north.

HLCA 015 Llanfoist

Small rural settlement: nineteenth century ribbon settlement and twentieth century planned estates. Variety of domestic housing, vernacular buildings, industrial and social housing. Transport networks including road and links to Llanfoist wharf and canal (HLCA013). Minor industrial processing features. Back to map

View southeast towards Coed-y-Prior showing fieldscape and woodland

HLCA 016 Cwm-mawr and Coed-y-Prior

Area characterised as enclosed agricultural landscape with characteristic stone built farmhouses and cottages. Communication features including the Monmouthshire and Brecon Canal. Ancient and other woodland.Back to map

View to the southeast across Mynydd y Garn-fawr.

HLCA 017 Mynydd y Garn-fawr

Unenclosed upland landscape characterised by pre-historic funerary/ritual features and livestock grazing. Very minor industrial features mainly boundary marker stones.Back to map

Aerial photograph over Cwmavon showing main road A4043 (middle), courtesy of RCAHMW.

HLCA 018 Cwmavon Industrial Transport Corridor

Major transport corridor, also characterized as a rare surviving medieval and post-medieval agricultural landscape with areas of woodland, scattered post-medieval farmsteads, and industrial processing at Cwmavon forge with associated industrial housing.Back to map

Mynydd Varteg opencast tips: view to the northwest.

HLCA 019 Mynydd Varteg Opencast

Extractive landscape dominated by modern opencast workings and waste tips. Former industrial extractive features related to quarrying and mining were previously characteristic of the area.Back to map

Coity Mountain (middle and background): view to the west.

HLCA 020 Coity Mountain

Predominantly unenclosed upland landscape characterized by agricultural stock management, boundary markers and prehistoric funerary ritual features. Another main characteristic is industrial extraction given the numerous quarries and collieries once in the area. Historic events.Back to map

Light industrial buildings: view to the northeast.

HLCA 021 West Blaenavon Industrial Estates

Area characterised by modern industrial estates. Previously dominated by collieries and associated buildings, industrial terraced rows and tramroad links. Buried archaeological remains. Back to map